Aside from asking Hamiləliyin erkən əlamətləri hansılardır burada oyren (What are the early signs of pregnancy?), nutrition is one of the most important issues for pregnant women: What can I eat? What foods can harm the baby? Do I have to eat for two people now?
Since the expectant mother has to feed her unborn child, the nutrient requirement is actually increased. However, the old rule of “eating for two” is no longer valid.
While the energy requirement in the first half of pregnancy is only imperceptibly increased, a pregnant woman should consume a maximum of 200 to 300 kilocalories per day in the second half. So she should not eat much more, but more consciously. A balanced and nutritious diet is important.
The average weight gain during pregnancy is about eleven to 15 kilograms.
The ideal composition of nutrition
Do not consume too much fat, especially hidden fat in sausage, cheese and desserts should be avoided. Overall, you should pay attention to a high proportion of vegetable fats. These contain, among other things, vitamins A and E. Animal fats are needed as suppliers of vitamin D.
The carbohydrate intake should be increased slightly to cover the slightly increased energy requirement. Choose high-quality carbohydrate suppliers. Chocolate, cookies, and cakes contain unnecessary calories in addition to carbohydrates. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, or potatoes, for example, are more suitable.
In addition, the fiber contained here stimulates digestion and thus prevents constipation. In addition, high-fiber foods saturate longer.
How many meals make sense?
During pregnancy, you should eat five to six smaller meals instead of the usual three. This has several advantages:
- The blood sugar does not drop too much.
- Frequent small meals help best against nausea, especially in the first months of pregnancy. If you suffer a lot from it, you should eat the first meal in bed in the morning. If you vomit frequently in addition to nausea, this first meal should be as dry as possible. Wholemeal biscuits or crispbread are well suited here.
- Towards the end of pregnancy, when the child needs more and more space, you can better digest frequent smaller meals.
- Especially if you suffer from heartburn, you should keep the last meal rather small, do not eat too late, and do not lie down flat immediately after eating.
Important nutrients for the child
Increase your protein intake right from the beginning of pregnancy. The child’s organism, which is currently under construction, depends on proteins as the basic substance for muscles and organs. At least half of the protein should come from plant sources. Valuable sources of protein are mainly dairy products, fish, lean meat, and legumes.
During pregnancy, the intake of certain minerals, vitamins, and trace elements are particularly important. TK will therefore reimburse the costs of pharmacy-only medicines with the active ingredients iron, magnesium, folic acid, and iodine during this time if your doctor has prescribed them for you.
An ovo-lacto-vegetable diet is possible. In order to consume enough iron, you should discuss with your doctor whether additional iron supplements are useful. If you do not like fatty sea fish, you may want to supplement your diet with omega-3 fatty acids.
A vegan diet during pregnancy is not possible without nutrient deficiency (high health risk for the child!). Pregnant women should therefore seek medical advice in any case and supplement their diet with micronutrients.
Do not give up salt
The diet should by no means be low in salt. About one teaspoon of salt per day is important for a positive course of pregnancy and in many cases can help prevent or alleviate the occurrence of gestosis.
Even with already existing complaints, especially edema, the pregnant woman should not do without salt. The usual treatment with rice/fruit days, low-salt, and liquid-reduced food does not help and can even worsen the disease. However, dehydrating agents – including herbal ones such as nettle tea – should not be taken instead.
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Be sure to drink enough. The recommended fluid intake is at least two liters per day. The most suitable are low-calorie non-alcoholic beverages, such as mineral water, herbal teas or diluted juices. You may continue to drink coffee or tea in normal quantities.
You should avoid alcoholic beverages, the consequences for your child are irrevocable.
Heavy coffee consumption (more than three cups a day) increases the risk of miscarriage and can affect the child’s birth weight.
These foods should be avoided
- Be careful with raw meat and raw milk products (especially raw milk cheese), here there is a risk of transmission of listeriosis. Infection of your unborn child with this germ can lead to miscarriage. Milk should only be enjoyed pasteurized or boiled. Especially raw or poorly cooked pork can contain toxoplasma, which can lead to serious damage to the child.
- Avoid offal for the duration of pregnancy.
- If possible, do not eat fast food or ready meals. They often contain many artificial additives and flavorings.
- Wash salad and vegetables that you want to eat raw very thoroughly.
- Smoking should also be avoided.
Nutrition for pregnant women: a sample day
Start the day with wholesome muesli, which you mix yourself according to your taste. They also use fruit and yogurt. For sweetening, honey is best suited.
For example, a snack could consist of a small salad over which you sprinkle sunflower or pine nuts. For the dressing, use extra virgin olive oil or yogurt.
At lunchtime, there is steamed deep-sea fish, for example, pollock, potatoes or rice, and fresh, short-cooked vegetables. Use iodized salt for cooking.
The next snack can consist of crunchy raw vegetables with herb quark dip or some fruit.
In the evening you should fall back on light food: delicious wholemeal bread with lean turkey meat or low-fat cheese and tomatoes as a topping. Accompanied by a large glass of milk.